You are happily dropping your kids off to school and you hear the words “Scarlet fever”. Your heart sinks, and you feel a little worried, but there is no need to panic. I am going to explain exactly what scarlet fever is, and my top tips on helping you and your kids manage the symptoms.
What is scarlet fever?
Scarlet fever, also known as scarlatina, it is a contagious bacterial infection that causes flu-like symptoms and is accompanied with a rash that feels rough like sandpaper It is most common in children aged 2 to 10. It can happen at any age, but most people develop immunity to the toxin the bacteria produce by that age, and it is extremely rare that anyone gets it more than once. Scarlet fever is caused by the same type of bacteria that causes strep throat — group A streptococcus (strep-toe-KOK-us), also called group A strep.
The incubation period (the period between exposure to the infection and symptoms appearing) can vary from one to seven days, but symptoms usually develop between two to five days after infection.
It is super contagious and can be caught by breathing in airborne droplets from an infected person when they cough and sneeze, touching the skin of someone with a streptococcal skin infection, such as impetigo and by sharing items such as clothes, bed linen, crockery, and towels.
You can also catch it from asymptomatic carriers, these are friends, family and classmates that carry the bacteria in their throat and skin, but don’t have any visible symptoms.
How do you know if you have scarlet fever?
One of the main symptoms for scarlet fever is a rash; small, raised spots that when you touch, feel like sandpaper, and looks like sunburn. It will typically start on your child’s face or neck and then spread to their belly, back, arms and legs. When you push on the redden skin, it turns pale. Another common symptom is ‘strawberry tongue’, this is where your child’s tongue generally looks red and bumpy, and it’s often covered with a white coating early in the disease.
However, initially your child might develop flu-like symptoms before the rash appears. The reason for the rash – the ‘scarlet’ of scarlet fever, is because the bacteria sometimes make a poisonous toxin and this causes the rough rash. After these more common symptoms have gone away, the skin affected by the rash often peels.
Other symptoms for scarlet fever include:
- Very sore throat and difficulty swallowing
- Fever of 38.0C or higher and accompanied with chills
- Nausea and/or sickness
- Tummy pain
- Aching body
- Enlarged glands in the neck (lymph nodes) that are tender to the touch
How to manage scarlet fever
Get in touch with your GP if you suspect Scarlet Fever. Don’t just walk in, though. They won’t thank you as it is so contagious… they will probably prefer a phone consultation. Here is the NHS’s advice.
Years ago, scarlet fever was considered a serious childhood illness, however, antibiotics have made it much less scary. It is important for your child to take antibiotics when they have scarlet fever because of the complications that may occur with group strep A infections, which I will touch on shortly, and also to reduce contagiousness.
Antibiotics, such as penicillin or amoxicillin, are the usual treatment from GPs Also, be mindful that children are still very much infectious for at least 24 hours once the antibiotic treatment has begun, so you’ll need to keep them at home for that time.
Without antibiotics, your child will probably be infectious for around 1-2 weeks from when their symptoms first occurred, so this is another reason to call your GP straight away.
As with most bacterial infections, there is always the small risk of the infection spreading to other parts of your child’s body such as ear infections, sinusitis and even pneumonia. Also, if scarlet fever is left untreated it can result in more serious conditions that can then go on to affect the kidneys, heart and other parts of the body.
Other potential complications
Paediatric Autoimmune Neuropsychiatric Disorders Associated (PANDAS) with Streptococcal Infections is becoming more common in children and is thought to be a misdirected autoimmune inflammatory response to an infection, in particular group strep A infections.
The child may or may not develop the classic symptoms of scarlet fever at the time, but after expose to streptococcus bacteria from a close family member or friend they may instead develop sudden onset anxiety, obsessions and compulsions (OCD), tics, day and/or night-time frequent urination and even a regression in schoolwork. The symptoms are usually dramatic, they happen “overnight and out of the blue”. This PANDAS response can be identified through a blood test and can be treated with antibiotics and supported by nutritional interventions.
Can I use probiotics?
When recovering from scarlet fever and other associated streptococcus infections it may be prudent to avoid yoghurts and probiotics containing a specific strain called Streptococcus thermophilus (S. thermophilus). This is because occasionally this ordinarily beneficial bacteria can exacerbate symptoms. However, this effect is only anecdotal and has been reported in a few cases of PANDAS.
There is however a streptococcus-based probiotic called BlisK12 which is thought to displace the pro-inflammatory strep strains with beneficial ones and often helps to restore equilibrium without exacerbating a flare.
Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium strains also seem to be totally OK and somewhat helpful for rebuilding the gut microbiome after the antibiotics.
Other complementary support for scarlet fever
Firstly, there are some simple things you can do to ease your child’s symptoms; give them cool fluids, homemade ice lollies, soft foods and administer painkillers if necessary.
Then to help with overall immunity and resilience you may want to incorporate a few of the following:
Vitamin D – There is research to suggest that vitamin D deficiency is associated with enhanced risk of streptococcal infections, it also improves antibacterial defences, which are important for efficient killing of bacteria. This vitamin is super easy to top up! First and foremost, sun exposure is the best way to boost your vitamin D levels (20 minutes per day), I also encourage supplementation during the winter months or if a blood test has shown that your child is deficient.
Cranberry – Some data suggests that cranberry extract in mouthwash has a significant potential in reducing oral Streptococcus counts.
Propolis – Research shows that it is responsible for various bioactivity such as antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant activities. Published research has indicated that propolis and its derivatives has many natural antimicrobial compounds with a broad spectrum against different types of bacteria and that it enhanced the efficacy of conventional antibiotics.
Andrographis – Has been traditionally used in Indian and Chinese herbal medicine for cough, cold and influenza, suggesting it plays a role in respiratory tract infections, so may help with the flu-like symptoms that are associated with scarlet fever.
Thyme – research suggests that thymus vulgaris oil has antimicrobial activity and could be used in mouth rinse, toothpaste, or aromatherapy for prevention and treatment of related oral Streptococci infections.
Essential oils: orange, bergamot and clove – These oils contain antimicrobial agents and research suggests that they could be used as complementary therapies in the treatment of infectious diseases such as Streptococcus pyogenes and Staphylococcus aureus.
As always NatureDoc therapists are here to support you and your children if you are struggling with the symptoms or longer lasting effects from scarlet fever. Get in touch today and speak with one of my team.
- How Probiotics Affect the Microbiota
- PANDAS—Questions and Answers
- Gut Microbiota Profiling and Gut–Brain Crosstalk in Children Affected by Pediatric Acute-Onset Neuropsychiatric Syndrome and Pediatric Autoimmune Neuropsychiatric Disorders Associated With Streptococcal Infections
- The association between vitamin D levels and recurrent group A streptococcal tonsillopharyngitis in adults
- Vitamin D and Streptococci: The Interface of Nutrition, Host Immune Response, and Antimicrobial Activity in Response to Infection
- Inhibitory effect of cranberry juice on the colonization of Streptococci species: An in vitro study
- Effect of high-molecular-weight component of Cranberry on plaque and salivary Streptococcus mutans counts in children: an in vivo study
- A high molecular mass cranberry constituent reduces mutans streptococci level in saliva and inhibits in vitro adhesion to hydroxyapatite
- Propolis as a novel antibacterial agent
- Natural antibacterial remedy for respiratory tract infections
- Natural Preparations Based on Orange, Bergamot and Clove Essential Oils and Their Chemical Compounds as Antimicrobial Agents
Andrographolide and Its Analogs on Bacterial Infection: A Review
- Andrographis paniculata (Chuān Xīn Lián) for symptomatic relief of acute respiratory tract infections in adults and children: A systematic review and meta-analysis
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